IT Operational Excellence

When IT departments are tuned to run their best, they achieve more, spend less and drive success back into the organisations they support.

IT operational excellence is an approach that helps to ensure IT departments run efficiently and deliver great service. Without an operational excellence philosophy, IT departments lack vision and strategy, are slow to adapt and are more likely to be bogged down by trivial issues.

Achieving IT operational excellence isn't about implementing one particular framework. It is a mindset geared towards continuous improvement and performance that incorporates multiple principles designed to align team goals around delivering value to the customer.

IBRS can help organisations achieve IT operational excellence by revealing the most effective ways to leverage resources and identify the most valuable activities and differentiators in a given IT team.

Conclusion: With cases of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) emerging across Australia, many businesses are or should bewell into pandemic planning to ensure they maintain essential services. Teleworking, remote working, or working from home, is a centrepiece of those efforts and will increasingly be implemented by organisations. Cybercrime activity is rising rapidly with actors seeking to exploit the fear and uncertainty in the community. The use of remote working technologies presents additional cyber security challenges that can be different from the more secure on-premise environments. Below is a list of considerations to help guide businesses through these challenges.

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Conclusion: Increasingly, organisations are looking to improve customer experiences through effective business processes. A ready portfolio of electronic services is expected by the market which offers services using online processes. SAP is often at the core of these ecosystems due to its scalability and interconnection with other specialised applications. This type of interconnection of systems has become the new norm.

Data collection, processing, security and privacy are but some of the concerns of customers. Systematic collection of data including seamless integration and extension of processes across multiple applications are part of the customer’s expectations, albeit unseen.

Once SAP forms the core of the ICT ecosystem, the ROI concerns will not stop once SAP integration is complete. Instead, organisations carrying a large SAP licensing investment would naturally dwell on maximising the ROI. Let us explore the risks associated with achieving this ROI now SAP has shifted the definition of user licensing.

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Conclusion: An ERP implementation can be one of an organisation’s biggest investments when considering implementation services, licences, hosting and support. ERP implementations and major version upgrades continue to be endorsed the world over, suggesting ROI continues to be positive. In scenarios where an ERP tool has been implemented or upgraded but has not been reviewed for years, especially in a changing operating environment, the intermediate step of a health check can drive significant value through adjusting and performing minor upgrades to the system for less investment than a new implementation or major upgrade.

As health checks are a periodic activity outside of business-as-usual, they often benefit from a different perspective, so organisations often use external consultants. While health checks should yield outputs that consider risk and value, ensuring the accuracy of findings is paramount in ensuring targeted value creation. To do this, organisations should consider several factors in the setup, execution and output of health checks.

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Conclusion: Covid-19 has already had severe global impacts even though the total impact is yet to be fully dimensioned. Further restrictions are foreseen in Australia. Its implications will be long term and disrupt the way we conduct business in future and the way we interact socially and a ‘new normal’ will emerge. No business will be immune and during this dislocation both challenges and opportunities will arise.

At IBRS we believe that it is critical to take the long view on how the crisis will evolve and be prepared for the waves of change which will follow.

Download your COVID-19 Survival Kit Covid-19-Survival-Kit.pdf

IBRS workforce transformation advisor Joseph Sweeney said many government departments had to navigate difficult IT environments that were only part-way through their digital transformations, with some systems in the cloud, and other legacy software still on premise.

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With the outbreak and continued spread of the recent Coranavirus, or COVID-19, your business continuity plan (BCP) may need to be put in motion.

IBRS has created the Business Continuity Planning: Pandemic Scenario template to test your BCP using the potential COVID-19 pandemic.

Download and use this template to ensure your organisation is well prepared.

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Conclusion: This month has seen a surge in merger and acquisition transactions, and discussions regarding the increased level of acquisitions in the past year. A growing trend of private equity firms investing in service providers was also flagged. This represents a shift in the market, as vendors become more established, profitable and more attractive to private equity investors. The opportunity to drive greater profitability, and demand for specialised technologies and services, also act as incentives for investment and provide vendors with resources to develop and offer a wide range of targeted, high-quality services to their customers.

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Being prepared: IBRS has created a BCP checklist to help you create and/or update your business continuity plan.

This diagram is to be used in the following ways:

  • A checklist to ensure all BCP steps have been actioned and/or updated as required
  • An easy reminder to update key supporting documents to the BCP to remain current which include:
    • Enterprise risk frameworks
    • Business impact analysis documents
    • Evacuation and lockdown procedures
    • Recovery plans and testing of these plans
    • IT disaster recovery plans
    • Communication plans
    • Regular executive reporting

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Conclusion: As Australia’s use of consultancy services continues to grow, so too does the need for businesses to obtain value from these engagements quickly and effectively. Key to obtaining this value is the organisation’s ability to easily and rapidly provide consultants and contractors with the specific context of your business, your customers and your unique challenges.

By providing the organisational context quickly, you can mitigate time, scope and budget creep, improve the quality of outputs developed by consultants and ensure that consequent plans are actionable and genuinely valuable for your business.

However, the ability to provide the needed organisational context quickly and effectively to consultants remains a common organisational challenge, and therefore a pitfall for successful vendor engagement. This paper covers how you can overcome this pitfall.

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Conclusion: Choosing to simplify the SAP migration project by removing irrelevant KPIs could increase adoption. This is the common thread for organisations that have successfully undertaken the SAP migration from on-premise to the Cloud.

Choosing an SAP certified practitioner with S/4HANA migration expertise helps reduce migration risk and enables a simpler migration strategy. SAP design for the S/4HANA suite replaces the extensive tables structures of the ECC series with a new digital core, in memory processing and reduces data storage costs.

Project risk can be minimised by considering these during the planning stage:

  1. An experienced SAP S/4HANA project team.
  2. Fully engaged executive sponsors and users.
  3. Early user engagement and user training.
  4. Allow testing to increase user confidence and reduce fear of data loss.
  5. Not underestimating the impact organisational issues will have on the project timeline.

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Conclusion: Pandemic planning is a strategic approach to business continuity that anticipates and prepares for a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease.

Business continuity planning can have an over-emphasis on short-term technology platforms failing, but as part of business continuity planning consideration needs to be given to the potential risk of an outbreak of a disease that could spread and may not be resolved quickly. The time of risk may go over several months or longer. Some forecasts for the coronavirus speculate it could take 12 to 18 months to come up with a vaccine.

The impact and planning needs to consider both internal and external factors; that is, how the pandemic event may impact employees and the organisation’s ability to keep its business operating. External factors will include the impact of the pandemic event on external service providers, suppliers and customers.

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IBRSiQ is a database of Client inquiries and is designed to get you talking to our Advisors about these topics in the context of your organisation in order to provide tailored advice for your needs.

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Conclusion: This month, security issues that concern businesses have been prominent. In particular, high profile security incidents in 2019 have resulted in a greater awareness of challenges faced by vendors and businesses when preparing for and responding to security concerns. One particular vulnerability flagged is that security initiatives and responses have trouble keeping step with new threats, technologies and security frameworks. It is necessary for both vendors and customers to view security as part of a framework that can adapt to change quickly, and accommodate challenges that arise with highly unexpected variables. Security specialists and frameworks can provide a good basis for strategies and response measures, but the capacity to recognise and respond to unforeseen incidents and threats is also critical.

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Conclusion: Australian organisations must have strong disaster recovery plans, be it for natural disasters or man-made disasters. The plans need to deal with the protection and recovery of facilities, IT systems and equipment. It is also critical that the plan deals with the human side of the impact of a disaster on the workforce. What planning needs to be done, what testing will be done, what will happen during a disaster and what needs to be done after a disaster?

This planning can be complex and confronting. Whilst testing the failover of IT systems can be relatively straightforward, testing the effectiveness of the workforce side of a plan will be difficult, and may even disturb employees who may prefer to think “surely it will never happen to us”.

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"What are the important elements of a Disaster Recovery Plan?" IBRS, 2016-08-30 01:17:08

Conclusion: Two key supporting artefacts in the creation of pragmatic incident response plans are the incident response action flow chart and the severity assessment table. Take time to develop, verify and test these artefacts and they will be greatly appreciated in aiding an orderly and efficient invoking of the DRP/BCP and restoration activities.

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"Top 10 considerations when running an incident response drill" IBRS, 2018-09-04 13:29:16

"What are the important elements of a Disaster Recovery Plan?" IBRS, 2016-08-30 01:17:08

Conclusion: The entering of a strategic partnership with a client or prospect by a major vendor, e. g. more than $50k paid p. a., is aimed at convincing them that mutual benefits such as helping them gain a competitive advantage or achieving major cost reductions, will accrue. When pressed on the likely benefits to the vendor, and assuming no financial equity is involved, one tactic some vendors use is to propose participation in a prestigious early software support program to jointly enhance their market image.

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Conclusion: This month, regulatory frameworks for the ICT industry and their interaction with IT businesses and customers have been prominent. The private sector has been more vocal about the need for government involvement and the government has been searching for industry input in areas of interest. Areas that are vulnerable and require government protocols and standards, as well as regulations, must be flagged. In addition, frameworks that may have negative impacts on local industry or global trade efforts if other market standards conflict must also be considered. It is critical that vendors, agencies and advocacy groups work together when setting frameworks in order to produce new and better business outcomes, as well as support government regulatory functions.

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Conclusion: Recognition of revenue and recording of objectively verifiable historical costs are the foundation of globally accepted accounting practices. These practices in turn provide transparency and consistency of reporting to improve the confidence with which enterprises conduct business and undertake trade, nationally as well as internationally.

Unfortunately, many enterprise architectures lack models that address this most critical of elements within an organisation. This absence of cost analysis means the recommendations from enterprise architects (EAs) can lack business credibility, rely on subjective assessments or are stymied by biases, cultural drag and ignorance of the true cost of the technology portfolio. Therefore, EAs must present business leaders with analysis from enterprise architecture (EA) that not only contains cost based on basic accounting practices, but also employs other important economic models, analysis and reporting techniques such as total cost of ownership, activity-based costing and technical debt.

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Conclusion: Finding technologies that meet print demand across differing personas is challenging. CIOs are being asked to replace printed documents with digital workflows but many formal documents are still printed for boards, corporate stakeholders, consumers and management. The answer can be to reduce the cost of printing and provide greater flexibility rather than simply removing printing. Remote print solutions in the Cloud should be investigated as a viable alternative to on-premise printing.

Remote worker definition is becoming broader as organisations look to reduce their footprint across leased buildings. Workers are looking at flexibility to perform their roles wherever work can be completed. The solution can be remote printing that is secure, easy to use and reliable.

Organisations need to consider print software that is operating system agnostic and allows the workforce to print from any location securely. This could eliminate the need to own or lease print hardware in your business.

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Conclusion: Stage gate reviews can be a highly effective governance tool that can materially enhance project outcomes; however, their value can be eroded by poor design, a lack of planning, or if they duplicate the objectives of other governance processes. To ensure stage gates are designed to deliver enhanced project outcomes, four key areas of consideration should be addressed: risk, context and purpose, delivery, and scheduling. Addressing these areas will ensure that stage gates address a defined and unique objective and contribute to overall project success.

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"Being a good customer of consulting Part 1: The importance of a client-side project manager in consulting engagements" IBRS, 2019-11-02 01:24:20

"Being a good customer of consulting Part 2: Driving value and successful outcomes by aligning RFP scope to supplier skills" IBRS, 2019-12-05 05:15:44

Conclusion: A foundation for virtually all IT vendors is to work to position themselves as a ‘leader’. This might be for a specific set of products, solutions or services.

IBRS client inquiries often include the question: “Which vendor is the leader for a specific solution?” This suggests that if a vendor may be perceived to be the leader then they may also be the best solution. Yet it is not unusual that several competing vendors all have statements or references that point to them being a leader.

Being a leader can mean many different things in terms of competing vendors, and can also be fluid as vendors are always working to improve their offerings and grow their businesses. Buyers need to understand exactly what is meant if a vendor is called a leader and recognise that this is only one factor to consider when deciding which solutions or vendors will best serve their specific needs and for their specific environment.

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Conclusion: This month, the launch of plans to develop new data centres have been prominent. The market has experienced a heightened demand for storage and associated services, with adoption driven by increased awareness amongst business users and evolving technologies specifically targeted to perform functions, such as the protection of critical assets and data. New unified technologies to meet a higher demand for the integration of applications, data and management solutions have also prompted growth. It is necessary for vendors to identify market gaps and offer new solutions to customers to stay relevant in an environment that is constantly changing. The development of new solutions to cater to customers who demand new ways to store, manage and use their data is essential, and an ongoing process.

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Conclusion: If your organisation has not entered a phase 1 managed print services providers (MPSP) agreement then having a clear understanding of your network connectivity, print assets and security requirements is essential before progressing to a tender. The business case needs to deliver at least 20 % savings on the current arrangements before considering value-add services to justify the request for proposal (RFP) process.

Enterprises entering phase 2 agreements with MPSPs should examine the value-add services and determine how they will contribute to further savings. Vendors will be offering automated workflows, data analytics, security and consulting services to increase the contract value.

If use case benefits are unclear, run a request for information (RFI) to enable comparative analysis of vendor capabilities.

Prior to developing the RFP, consider use cases that look at B2B or B2C workflow efficiency such as:

  1. Integration of print activities with other delivery processes
  2. Reducing resources to deliver improved outcome
  3. Accelerate the shift to digital transformation.

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Conclusion: Shifting end users to a digital service delivery channel is more cost-effective for most scenarios and most organisations. The return on investment is through a reduced volume of low-value interactions and an increase in the volume of high-value interactions within high-cost traditional channels. This is a strategic tactic for many organisations and mature ones will have this articulated in a channel management strategy with defined channel migration/shift/uptake targets.

If that channel migration target is not at the centre of the key performance indicator (KPI) design before it gets rolled out to front line staff, organisations run the risk of creating internal tension between their departments which in turn slows down the rate of transformation.

Well thought out and designed KPIs are a critical success factor in the time it takes for an organisation to see a return on the investment in service delivery transformation.

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Conclusion: When engaging the market for consulting services, estimating the resource mix, including experience and skills, can form an excellent basis for evaluating if what is being proposed by consultants is likely to be optimal for the scope, and effective, given the environment of the purchasing organisation.
There are four main elements that should be considered:

  1. Engagement and project management
  2. Technical, strategic or design elements
  3. Guided, repetitive or high-volume elements
  4. Intellectual property.

The rationale for these, and approaches to consider when evaluating each, are discussed below.

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Conclusion: Unless the attributes of user stories (agile) or high-level requirements (waterfall) are succinct and testable, business systems specifications will lack rigour and could compromise the system’s integrity. To ensure these attributes, i. e. succinct and testable, are present, the stories and high-level requirements should be peer reviewed to identify content that is unclear or just expressing an unrealistic ‘want/wish’ list.

It is important the stories or high-level requirements contain sufficient context to enable systems requirements, i. e. functional and non-functional, to be developed because unless they do it will be difficult to prioritise them based on business drivers.

Similarly, the results of user acceptance testing should be peer reviewed to ensure the agreed requirements have been met and the output is verifiable.

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Conclusion: Onboarding is a critical process when hiring new employees. Poor first impressions can impact the potential success of new employees, and potentially the productivity or benefits that an organisation may have been expecting when adding the new employees. Worst case is a new highly skilled employee decides quickly that the organisation is not a good fit for them, and they leave it to find a better one.

Software tools are available to assist with the onboarding experience and process.
These tools aim to assist in several ways including automation of administrative tasks such as getting HR documents out to new hires, providing e-learning tools, tracking new hire progress, ensuring governance, and managing workflows and checklists.

Tools can help improve the overall efficiency and potential effectiveness of the onboarding process, and importantly help develop a repeatable and consistent process that all hiring managers in an organisation can utilise. Onboarding is of course about welcoming a new employee into the organisation, helping them get up to speed quickly in terms of their new role and the organisation, and providing them with the support to be productive as quickly as possible. The importance of the ‘personal’ contribution to the process cannot be forgotten or replaced by software tools.

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"Workforce transformation Part 1: Disrupting the very idea of paper is an important first step" IBRS, 2018-03-31 06:53:24

Conclusion: It is not uncommon for IBRS to see vendors delaying licensing negotiation for renewals until the very last month via a variety of tactics. By delaying negotiation vendors can limit customers’ time for reviewing their options to reduce the overall licensing spend through either better licensing packages and licensing optimisation processes. Clients should put in place practices that reduce vendors’ ability to apply delaying tactics and put vendors on notice that this tactic is no longer tolerated.

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Conclusion: Despite its widespread adoption, enterprise architecture (EA) continues to suffer from the perception that in a world of lean start-ups, design thinking and agile delivery, it is simply not pragmatic. As a discipline EA is shrouded in language that can be seen as alien or obtuse with many practitioners quick to launch into discussions of frameworks, meta-models, methodologies, notations and ultimately tools. The result is EA has become stayed and stifled in archaic notations and models often inaccessible to anyone outside the fold.

Just as software development, project management and product management have all undergone an ‘agile reformation’ in areas where traditional approaches had failed, EA is entering its own ‘revolution’ with the emergence of ‘architecture thinking’ and ‘lean tooling’. If successful, these trends may establish a new manifesto that heralds a reformation of the EA discipline’s core practices, a renaissance in EA tooling and a turnaround in the perception of its value.

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Conclusion: This month, discussions regarding partnerships and acquisitions with the specific aim of expanding reseller businesses to include managed services have been prominent. Specifically there have been a number of investments, acquisitions and partnerships to transition resellers into service providers. This type of consolidation can be beneficial by enhancing offerings, assisting with collaboration and evolution, as well as providing access to new skills and products vendors have been lacking. Investments have also been made to educate traditional resellers on the benefits of becoming managed service providers with a focus on obtaining new customers and channel distribution of managed services. This flags a shift in customer demand for service-based value models which can be specifically targeted to individual business needs, and will ultimately be positive for both vendors and their clients.

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Conclusion: Since the earlier IBRS contact centre trend report was released at the beginning of 20171, it is time to reflect on those trends and reassess what improvements have been made. Fortunately, there have been new trends that emerged to assist ICT managers in strategic planning for the necessary tools and management aspects in transformational activities through to replacing call centre technical debt with future technologies.

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Conclusion: Today’s business activities are heavily reliant on constantly commoditising IT functions. Faced with this reality, few organisations would now deny that improving the delivery of critical IT services has a key role in helping to optimise overall business operations. The responsibility for realising the success of this optimisation lies squarely with the CIO and forms the very foundation of the ‘business of IT’ or IT service management – for which the UK Office of Government Commerce’s Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) has been the leading standard for two decades.

And IT service management (ITSM) itself has become a commodity function sourced either in the form of comprehensive Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) solutions through to fully outsourced or automated Business-Process-as-a-Service (BPaaS) offerings.

However, for an IT business to truly prosper, the CIO needs to engage with an ITSM partner who can assist their IT organisation to better understand itself rather than merely understand the needs of the business they serve. This means looking beyond ITIL process knowledge and service desk software certifications when selecting the right partner.

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Conclusion: Identifying weaknesses in vendor management will be more effective for organisations that continuously examine their processes and manage vendor performance through an optimised vendor governance framework (VGF). An effective VGF must contain overarching guidelines which are applicable for all ICT vendor categories. Examples could include delivering increased value, promoting and providing cost reductions and recommending improvement to service levels. Mature organisations plan for vendors to provide value-added solutions and/or costs reductions in the range of 10 %+ p. a.1
To ensure the VGF continues to be relevant, organisations must firstly consider their latest ICT strategy then complete gap analysis of current vendors needed to deliver the strategy. The framework needs to be flexible to meet the changing dynamics of an organisation’s various operations whilst avoiding the vendor supply chain adversely impacting service delivery.

IBRS advises assessing and developing an organisation’s vendor governance framework using the IBRS Vendor Governance Maturity Model.

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Conclusion: Consulting engagements are often scheduled under the assumption of ideal conditions. In reality, many engagements experience a ‘slow start’ due to the consultants needing to request information and data, schedule stakeholder meetings, understand assumptions and parameters, and define and agree on the appropriate governance processes. This is often followed by a ‘frantic finish’ and can impact the quality of consulting outcomes.
All of the causes of the ‘slow start’ can be effectively alleviated through preparation and the role of a client-side project manager. This early work can often lead to significantly increased quality of consulting deliverables.

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"Being a good customer of consulting Part 2: Driving value and successful outcomes by aligning RFP scope to supplier skills" IBRS, 2019-12-05 05:15:44

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Conclusion: Under its 365 umbrella, Microsoft offers a portfolio of plans with different packages of products and services. These Enterprise plans vary in terms of Features, Analytics, Security Development Options, Device Management and Security. However, some of the packages are suitable only for certain types of needs and employee roles. It is crucial to narrow down which tools the organisation should consider licensing through an in-depth analysis of the interplay between the organisation’s target achievements for a certain period of time and the employees’ performance and expected output. Matching different 365 plans to different employees may not only save money, but can also make for a more effective and efficient workforce.

However, mixing plans also comes with future compliance risks. There are several features of higher-level 365 licences than cannot be easily limited to just those staff licensed to use them. In the future, it is possible that Microsoft and its partners could use these features to argue for an uplift in overall licensing due to difficult-to-prove compliance obligations.

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Conclusion: Microsoft is pushing its enterprise clients from Premier Support to Unified Support. Unified Support bundles many new and existing support services into a single program. As a result, the adoption of Unified Support is, for many clients, significantly increasing their support costs. The problem is that there can be a vast difference between support that the client has been consuming for the last decade or more, compared to what Microsoft gives them with Unified Support.

The challenge for organisations is how to decide if Unified Support is appropriate for them. If Unified Support is appropriate, how will the organisation ensure it draws new value from the program to justify the expense? If not, what are the alternatives for obtaining support services?

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According to a new IBRS study, spend on enterprise solutions is set to increase in 2019-2020. Both IT and line of business buyers need to consider how they manage procurement of these new solutions – and how they can make integration easy for their business.

According to the report, there are three degrees of integration an organisation can opt for: the pre-integrated enterprise, the core services and satellite apps enterprise and the business service mesh.

Understanding the kind of company you want to be is important, says Julie Ember, SaaS transition specialist at TechnologyOne, as that will help inform the decision about what business application environment fits your needs.

“Do you want to be in the business of IT, or focus on delivering your core business?” asks Ember.

“This is important because if an organisation does not, or cannot, build a large, highly skilled IT group, then they need to choose an application environment that can be easily supported – something like Software as a Service where the vendor manages the delivery and upkeep of the applications,” she says.

It is also important to determine if the business needs niche, best-of-breed applications to deliver core business processes, or if it is able to align with off-the-shelf enterprise software, she adds.

“An enterprise software strategy will provide a simplified application architecture with minimal integration, which not only makes implementations quicker, but also ensures the latest enhancements are easy to adopt.”

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Conclusion: This month, discussions regarding technologies used to facilitate highly specialised business functions have been prominent. Tailored solutions which focus on the performance of tasks, such as case outcome predictions, automated insurance claims, water monitoring for farms, sensors in apartment foundations to identify faults early and health risk identification, are amongst those discussed. These new solutions and frameworks can be beneficial for customers by automating tasks to address resource and skills shortages, as well as being cost-effective. However, these can be sensitive markets, performing very delicate functions that do warrant a certain degree of caution for vendors and customers when adopting, and a great deal of diligence afterwards. Investment in infrastructure because of expanding platforms, networks or associated equipment, training and consolidation with existing business operations are amongst the issues that may arise. Wrapping new solutions and service elements around other core services and operations can become a complex task. While customers do demand advanced offerings, vendors must find ways to increase value to clients by ensuring they acquire or have access to resources and skills that can be leveraged to support these new function-based solutions and associated issues.

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Conclusion: The adherence to the recently introduced guidelines under ISO:31000 20181 is key to every ICT manager’s responsibilities and leadership remit as they are key in driving and leading the adoption of risk management guidelines across an organisation due to the overarching responsibilities of creating and protecting value. These new risk management guidelines have been deliberately rewritten to be simplified and based around a new reviewed set of principles, framework and processes. Greater emphasis is now placed on leadership to ensure risk management is more integrated and to ensure more actions and controls are in place at critical stages of projects as well as business operations.

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Conclusion: Since the advent of the title of chief information officer (CIO), the reporting line for this critical role and those it has since spawned, such as the chief technology officer and chief digital officer, has been the subject of debate. The reality is that there is no right or wrong answer, but rather the reporting relationship of the CIO and his or her IT organisation is a function of the current value of IT to delivery of outcomes at a particular given point in time.

The reality is that the value of IT to delivery of business outcomes, despite the pervasiveness of technology in the modern enterprise, is not static and changes over time. Yet many CIOs and aspiring IT leaders see IT value as a function of organisational or IT maturity, relying on capability maturity models (CMM) to demonstrate value by looking ‘internally’ within the IT function. Instead, contemporary savvy IT leaders must look for alternative models that explain the organisational context external to IT itself and use that to align services that will be valued now such as the “IT Hierarchy of Needs”1.

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