Conclusion: Whilst the forthcoming General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is a European regulation, some Australian organisations are likely to be impacted and will need to comply. One of the requirements of the regulation is to appoint a Data Protection Officer (DPO), whose job role has very specific duties and legal responsibilities which are defined as part of the GDPR.

However, the guidelines are not completely clear as to when it is mandatory for an organisation to appoint a DPO. Australian organisations should consider if, 1: will they need to comply with the GDPR, and, 2: will they need to appoint a DPO?

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Conclusion: Employ a bottom-up technology-based approach and a top-down business approach when developing the business and IT transformation program. Additionally, the program must take a pragmatic approach to reflect workplace changes that are feasible to meet the expectations of clients, staff, suppliers and the community.

Unless the program is continually revised to reflect the changing business and technology environment, it runs the risk of addressing yesterday’s problems. When benefits expected are not being realised, as indicated immediately below, it is important to implement turnaround strategies.

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Conclusion: In the last few years the structure and shape of ICT investment have undergone a series of shifts. The results are varied and complex and they reflect wider changes in the investment and use of ICT products.

It is important for organisations to take note of these transitions and to adapt and utilise methods which can improve the efficiency of their ICT portfolios.

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Conclusion: Although automation is actively being introduced through digital transformation projects, it may still be a minor part of the technological mix for a few years. The main reason for the potentially slower progress with automation is the relatively mixed economic background. In some specific instances, it is an obvious option but otherwise its benefits will be ambiguous for some time.

In these foreseeable circumstances it may be that business as usual (BAU) is the overriding strategic principle.

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Conclusion: In organisations across Australia, there is a push for digital and business transformation. Many of these same organisations utilise business analysis in a traditional way which results in the standard capture of requirements and the conversion of requirements into system specifications without really challenging business processes. In addition, there is often a trend of allocating too many responsibilities to a single role and not providing appropriate authority to the role of rigorously analysing processes, systems and requirements, which will impact on many digital transformation activities.

Business Transformation needs comprehensive analysis and a complete reassessment of the process or analysis with a capital “A”. Failure to objectively and fearlessly review and remove outdated processes and system functions will result in a failure to appropriately transform the business for the future.

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Conclusion: Despite increasing focus on information and data in an as-a-Service age, thought leadership in the data management discipline has waned. Today, few of the frameworks, methods and bodies of knowledge that emerged either from the data modelling fraternity or the records management community in the last decade remain active.

This leaves organisations seeking to address the impacts of increasing privacy regulation, cyber security risks from increased digital delivery or improving data integrity to support automation with only one real choice – the Data Management Association (DAMA)’s Data Management Book of Knowledge whose 2nd Edition (DMBoK2) has emerged after almost three years of international collaboration.

Despite the wait, DMBoK2 provides a much-needed update on an already solid foundation addressing contemporary issues with the exception of fully addressing the challenges of data science in its broadest form. Organisations seeking to comprehensively address data management would be well served by adopting DMBoK as a foundational model, thereby ensuring they have a single point of reference regardless of the specific outcomes or priorities that need to be addressed now or in the future.

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Conclusion: Many municipalities and civic enterprises contemplating Smart City initiatives are simply not capable of implementing them because they lack the leadership, partnering skills, corporate experience, skills, sophistication and organisation required to address these global urban planning and ICT developments locally1.

The remedy is at Governance level.

Municipalities must assess their own native capability to contemplate, evaluate, manage and complete Smart City business and ICT solutions according to global best practices.

Conducting a fundamental high level appraisal of a city’s ability to undertake Smart City tasks and programs may be the most valuable contribution that most mayors and civic management teams can make for the modern municipality.

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Conclusion: User Centred Design (UCD) and Design Thinking are terms that are often used interchangeably. However, each approach is better suited to different scenarios and understanding the strengths and focus of each approach enables organisations to build capability and processes that leverage the opportunities presented by each to maximise service innovation and new product service design. While often used as approaches to identify and design products and services with a technology focus, they are in no way limited to technology elements. Not only is it important to leverage the most appropriate approach but organisations also need to build and apply skills and knowledgeable internal resources in the most effective manner to yield the expected results from these experiential methods.

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